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Probable cause Archive



by Edmond Geary

Police Stop-And-Frisk Campaign Ruled Illegal

To address the abundance of street crime in high crime areas of New York City, the police devised an aggressive stop-and-frisk approach.  They called it TAP, acronym for  Trespassers Affidavit Program.  It used to be known as Operation Clean Halls.  The police approached anyone outside certain housing projects, engaged them, search them, question them and…

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by Edmond Geary

Drug Dogs Searches in Oklahoma

Often when law enforcement officers stop a vehicle on the highway, they will use a drug dog to sniff the vehicle to establish probable cause to justify their subsequent manual search.   The reliability of that dog then becomes a fact question as to whether that search was legally justified, since the search was based upon…

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